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Compiled and Translated by: Prof. Dr. Hakan YAMAN

Studies related to the twentieth century of medical photography have been in the fields of anatomy, anthropometry, kinetics, histology, pathology, orthopedics, dermatology, ophthalmology, oral and dental health, forensic medicine and stereophotography. Although medical illustration is not completely, it has gradually begun to give way to photography.

Lighting was important for anatomy, posture, anthropometric shooting, and appropriate studio conditions had to be provided for this. For this purpose, studios completely painted in white have been prepared. In addition to the locations used for pre- and postoperative filming, such studios are usually set up in autopsy rooms. Each institution has gone to structure according to its own needs and financial possibilities.

If we examine the literature published in the publication organ of the Biological Photography Society (BPS), in summary, it is the 20th in the field of biological and therefore medical photography, which has six branches. In the century there have been the following developments:

1932 – Carl D. Clarke: Illumination at a 45 degree angle from above with the main light.
1932 – Ferdinand Harding: Principles of copying radiographs.
1933 – Chester F. Reather: Stereophotomacrographs of embryos.
1935 – Ralph Creer: Photograph of the priestess.
1935 – H. M. Dekking: A comprehensive article on eye photography.
1935 – Ferdinand Harding: Phantom photographs for joint range of motion.
1937 – Harvey W. Spencer: Article on dental photography.
1937 – Louis A. Waters: Forensic photography, including infra-red photos.
1938 – Ferdinand Harding: Standardization of scoliosis photos.
1941 – Ferdinand Harding: Standards for viewing the soles of the feet.
1942 – Tibor Benedek: Ultraviolet photos of patients.
1942 – John V. Butterfield: Achieving optimal quality in photomicrography.
1942 – William Payne: Copying dental photographs.
1943 – J.T. Fox: Photomacrography with kodachrome.
1943 – Roger P. Loveland: Photomicrography with kodachrome.
1944 – John A. Maurer: Calculation of photomicrographic exposure times with a photoelectric posometer.
1944 – Edmond J. Farris: Automatic cinematography of rats in a specially designed cage.
1947 – Phillip H. Mott: Precise lighting and exposure for somatotyping.
1948 – Fritz Goro: Photographic examination of the detection of coagulated blood.

The Royal Photographic Society has made significant contributions to standardization of post-war medical photography. at the meeting held in 1948, standards related to terminology, photo size and shape, scale, lighting, film and filters, positioning/position, negative bath, post-bath processing (punctuation, retouching, opacification) and print quality and color quality related to all medical and scientific photography products were developed.

If we continue the chronology of medical photography based on the articles published in the journal, it is possible to observe the following developments:

1951 – Oscar W. Richards: Production of contour lines in 3-dimension cytohistology phase photomicrography.
1951 – Machteld E. Sano: Synephotomicrography in tissue cultures.
1951 – H. G. Cobrach: Macrographic stroboscopic cine examination of the inner ear.
1952 – J. D. Brubaker: Article on optical endoscopy.
1953 – Charles E. Obstacle: Photographing footprints.
1953 – Lewis W. Koster: Time-lapse cinemicrography.
1954 – Robert S. Warner: Distribution of audio-visual seminar/training materials to rural areas.
1955 – Albert Averbach: Forensic pathology.
1956 – Bernard M. Spinell and Roger P. Loveland: Flash illumination in photomicrography.
1956 – J-M.D. deMontreynaud: Bronchoscopic photography and cinematography article.
1957 – F. D. Wallace: Neuropsychiatric photography and cinematography.
1957 – Douglas C. Anderson: Electronic flash photomacrography.
1957 – Howard E. Tribe and Ralph L. Shelton, Jr.: Cinematography of the human larynx.
1957 – Symposium Authors: A guide to the use of biophotography in communication for use in science and education with 104 pages and 8 pages of color photos.
1958 – Arthur Smialowski: Clinical photography of the human eye.
1960 – Stanley Klosevych: Phase contrast photomicrography.
1960 – W. H. Oldendorf, M.D: Substrate method for multiplying radiographs.
1965 – E. Lynn Baldwin: Creating stereo prints in Polaroid Vectography.
1950 – Wilmot Castle Explosion-Proof Light: Operating room lighting.
1952 – Intraflex Body-Cavity Camera: a device for photographing anatomical openings of 16 mm.
1952 – Mighty Midget: Electronic flash ring flash.
1953 – Kodak Analyst Projector: A stop-motion device for kinetic studies.
1953 – Kodak Ectalith Process: Short color printing method.
1954 – Fenjohn Underwater Still Camera: with 120 or 70 mm film.
1955 – Kern Colpograph: With Electronic Flash.
1956 – Diafix 35 mm Strip Printer.
1957 – Pageant Sound Projector, Magnetic-Optical Model. Remote control with radio signals.
1958 – Alpha Macro-Kilar, 40mm, f/2.8 Lens; 2 inches to infinity, pre-set diaphragm.
1958 – LogEtronic Contact Printer.
1958 – Oscar Fisher Compact Silver Recovery Unit.
1959 – Hershey Hi-Pro Speedlight.
1960 – Olympus Auto-Eye Camera.
1962 – Portable Cinema Light: Illuminates 18 m away, lasts for 6 minutes and can be charged in one hour.
1963 – Nikkorex 35 Zoom Camera: The first compact camera with zoom feature.
1965 – Zeiss Ultraphol II Camera Microscope; 4 X 5.
1965 – Bausch and Lomb Light Wire: with fiber optics.
1967 – Olympus Gastro Camera
1968 – Tungsten-halogen lamps.
1970 – Motor-driven NIKON F Camera: for scintillation recording.
1971 – The Pako 17B film processor.
1973 – The improved Eastman Versamat Film Processor.
1974 – The Zeiss Axiomat: Modular research photomicroscope.
1976 – Kalart Victor Model 90; TV, 16mm optical audio projector.
1976 – Kodak Royalprint Processor: Printing and drying in 55 seconds. b/w.
1978 – Leitz Dialux 20 Microscope
1978 – Leo Leverage: PLATO Computer Terminal and the Thompson-CSF videodisc player.
1979 – Philips Color Head
1979 – The Singer/Kodak Company Caramate and Ektagraphic transparent projectors.

After 1980, computers and digital technology are starting to enter the field of photography. DX encoding has been introduced to 35-mm film.

1980 – SONY launches the first consumer camcorder.
1984 – Canon released the first electronic (digital) camera.
1985 – Minolta launched the world’s first auto-focus SLR system (Maxxum).
1987 – Kodak and Fuji introduced the first economical disposable cameras (Kodak Fling and Fuji Quicksnap).
1987 – Canon RC-760 still video camera is presented.
1988 – The Q-PIC floppy disc camera was a pioneer of digital cameras of the 1990s.

As can be seen, the twentieth century has caused the accelerated development of photography and especially medical photography. Based on the sources available above, a chronological breakdown of the method and technology is presented. Although it takes its basis from photography, it is possible to see that some methods are not used in amateur and artistic photography today, while some methods have given way to newly developed radiodiagnostic methods.

As a discipline, medical photography continues to exist in some well-established associations, communities or associations in the world as a sub-branch of scientific photography.

Medical photographers are expected to have some skills related to photography and related technologies. For this reason, especially after the second world war, studies were carried out by organizations such as the Royal Photographic Society or Biological Photographic Association on the establishment of educational programs and educational institutions.

Medical photographers are expected to provide some services to the extent of the expectations and needs of the institution where they work. These are infrared or ultraviolet reflected fluorescent imaging techniques, endoscopic-bronchoscopic-laparoscopic or fiberoscopic photography, intraoral photography, stereo-imaging and photogrammetry, contour mapping, photomicrography and photomicrography. In the past, medical photographers were traditionally expected to prepare reprographs, tables, curves, graphs and radiographs in the past. Even when computers and software were not widespread, transparencies with medical content were also prepared by themselves. Along with the digital revolution, poster preparation and presentation preparation processes are also being prepared by the photo-film center, i.e. medical photographers.


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President of Organ Transplant Center at MedicalPark Hospital Antalya

Turkey's world-renowned organ transplant specialist. Dr. Demirbaş has 104 international publications and 102 national publications.

Physician's Resume:

Born on August 7, 1963 in Çorum, Prof. Dr. Alper Demirbaş has been continuing his work as the President of MedicalPark Antalya Hospital Organ Transplantation Center since 2008.

Prof. who performed the first tissue incompatible kidney transplant in Turkey, the first blood type incompatible kidney transplant, the first kidney-pancreas transplant program and the first cadaveric donor and live donor liver transplant in Antalya. Dr. As of August 2016, Alper Demirbaş has performed 4900 kidney transplants, 500 liver transplants and 95 pancreas transplants.

In addition to being the chairman of 6 national congresses, he has also been an invited speaker at 12 international and 65 national scientific congresses. Dr. Alper Demirbaş was married and the father of 1 girl and 1 boy.


Eczacibasi Medical Award of 2002, Akdeniz University Service Award of 2005, Izder Medical Man of the Year Award of 2006, BÖHAK Medical Man of the Year Award of 2007, Sabah Mediterranean Newspaper Scientist of the Year Award of 2007, ANTIKAD Scientist of the Year Award of 2009, Social Ethics Association Award of 2010, Işık University Medical Man of the Year Award of 2015, VTV Antalya's Brand Value Award of 2015.


Doctor of Medicine Degree Hacettepe University Faculty of Medicine Ankara, General Surgeon Ministry of Health Turkey EKFMG (0-477-343-8), University of Miami School of Medicine Member of Multiple Organ Transplant, ASTS Multiorgan Transplant Scholarship. Lecturer at Kyoto University. Lecturer at University of Essen, Research assistant at the University of Cambridge .

Professional Members:

American Society of Transplant Surgeons, American Transplantation Society Nominated, Middle East and Southern Africa Council Transplantation Society 2007, International Liver Transplantation Association, Turkish Transplantation Association, Turkish Society of Surgery, Turkish Hepatobiliary Surgery Association.


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