Blood is a vital fluid that circulates throughout the body through veins, consisting of plasma and blood cells. The place of construction of blood cells is the bone marrow. There are three types of cells in the blood. These are; white blood cells (leukocytes), red blood cells (erythrocytes) and cells involved in clotting (platelets). All of these cells consist of a precursor stem cell found in the bone marrow.

The most common form of cancer in childhood is blood cancer, that is, leukemia. Leukemia occurs because blasts, the precursor of white blood cells, that is, stem cells, multiply abnormally for various reasons and do not die when the time comes. These malignant cells, which multiply abnormally, fill the entire bone marrow after a while, and there is no room for normal blood cells in the bone marrow, the construction of normal blood cells is disrupted, and the number gradually decreases. Therefore, symptoms such as anemia, bleeding, frequent infection due to the lack of these normal cells, the construction of which is disrupted during the disease, and symptoms due to the spread of abnormal cells to other organs through the bloodstream are observed. Leukemia spreads most often to the brain and testicles.

Leukemias are divided into various types according to the increased white blood cells seen. 80% of childhood leukemia is a form of leukemia that we call acute (sudden onset) lymphoblastic leukemia. The incidence is 3-4 children per hundred thousand and there are 2000 new cases of leukemia in Turkey every year. Acute lymphoblastic leukemia is most often seen around the age of 3-4. It is more common in male children. the incidence decreases after the age of 15.

There are studies showing that smoking by the father before fertilization increases the risk of developing leukemia of the child to be born by 4 times, and smoking by the mother during pregnancy increases this risk by 2 times.

Leukemia is usually not due to a single cause, but is caused by the combination of multiple genetic and / or environmental factors Decoupled. Some of these reasons are:

  • Exposure to X-rays in the womb
  • Radiation
  • Electromagnetic fields
  • High voltage lines
  • Chemical agents (benzene, substances used in the paint industry)
  • Nuclear weapons
  • Drugs used in the treatment of cancer
  • Agriculture and pesticides
  • Viral infections
  • Genetic diseases (for example, down syndrome)
  • Smoking
  • Most of them, such as advanced maternal age, are preventable factors.

Symptoms of Leukemia:

The most common symptoms of leukemia in childhood are the following:

  • Weight loss
  • Loss of Appetite
  • Weakness, do not get tired quickly
  • Bone and joint pains, fever that does not fall
  • Swelling of the lymph nodes
  • Nose and gum bleeding
  • Swelling and stiffness of the testicles in boys
  • If it has spread to the brain, headache, vomiting remittance

Diagnosis of Leukemia:

A detailed physical examination to be performed by a doctor is a guide in the diagnosis. The diagnosis can be made definitively with laboratory tests performed afterwards.

First of all, a complete blood count is performed with a tube of blood taken from a vein . With this examination, changes in the amount of cells in the blood are observed.

After a complete blood count, a drop of blood taken from the finger is spread on a small piece of glass, a sample called peripheral smear is prepared by painting with various dyes. By examining this example under a microscope, the number of blood cells is again checked and whether their shape is normal.

Abnormal findings observed at these two stages largely make the diagnosis of leukemia. But for a definitive diagnosis, a bone marrow examination should be performed, which is where the event actually took place. . For this purpose, a very small amount of bone marrow is removed from the hip bone under anesthesia. With the bone marrow sample taken, various tests are performed, genetic tests are performed if necessary, and both the diagnosis and type of leukemia are finalized.

In addition, various biochemical and radiological examinations are performed to detect the spread of the disease.
All these tests are used in diagnosis, as well as in the follow-up and monitoring of treatment , recovery and recurrence of the disease in the future.

Leukemia Treatment:

Regardless of the type of leukemia, if it is not treated, it results in death. With the use of cancer drugs that we call chemotherapy in treatment, the number of cancer cells is reduced by killing them. Chemotherapy treatment is performed together with radiation therapy, called radiation therapy.

Complete recovery can be achieved with a bone marrow transplant to be performed after chemotherapy and radiation therapy. In a bone marrow transplant, stem cells taken from a healthy person with tissue compatibility are transplanted to the patient. This gives birth to stem cells that are provided with new intact stem cells, and this is how healing is achieved.

In addition to these treatments, infections that may occur are treated by performing supportive treatments, nutrition is regulated.

The diagnosis and treatment of this disease should be carried out in centers that are specialized in leukemia and have a team like MedicalPark Hospital Center Antalya, Turkey.



Follow me
President of Organ Transplant Center at MedicalPark Hospital Antalya

Turkey's world-renowned organ transplant specialist. Dr. Demirbaş has 104 international publications and 102 national publications.

Physician's Resume:

Born on August 7, 1963 in Çorum, Prof. Dr. Alper Demirbaş has been continuing his work as the President of MedicalPark Antalya Hospital Organ Transplantation Center since 2008.

Prof. who performed the first tissue incompatible kidney transplant in Turkey, the first blood type incompatible kidney transplant, the first kidney-pancreas transplant program and the first cadaveric donor and live donor liver transplant in Antalya. Dr. As of August 2016, Alper Demirbaş has performed 4900 kidney transplants, 500 liver transplants and 95 pancreas transplants.

In addition to being the chairman of 6 national congresses, he has also been an invited speaker at 12 international and 65 national scientific congresses. Dr. Alper Demirbaş was married and the father of 1 girl and 1 boy.


Eczacibasi Medical Award of 2002, Akdeniz University Service Award of 2005, Izder Medical Man of the Year Award of 2006, BÖHAK Medical Man of the Year Award of 2007, Sabah Mediterranean Newspaper Scientist of the Year Award of 2007, ANTIKAD Scientist of the Year Award of 2009, Social Ethics Association Award of 2010, Işık University Medical Man of the Year Award of 2015, VTV Antalya's Brand Value Award of 2015.


Doctor of Medicine Degree Hacettepe University Faculty of Medicine Ankara, General Surgeon Ministry of Health Turkey EKFMG (0-477-343-8), University of Miami School of Medicine Member of Multiple Organ Transplant, ASTS Multiorgan Transplant Scholarship. Lecturer at Kyoto University. Lecturer at University of Essen, Research assistant at the University of Cambridge .

Professional Members:

American Society of Transplant Surgeons, American Transplantation Society Nominated, Middle East and Southern Africa Council Transplantation Society 2007, International Liver Transplantation Association, Turkish Transplantation Association, Turkish Society of Surgery, Turkish Hepatobiliary Surgery Association.


Our website contents consist of articles approved by our Web and Medical Editorial Board with the contributions of our physicians. Our contents are prepared only for informational purposes for public benefit. Be sure to consult your doctor for diagnosis and treatment.
Medically Reviewed by Professor Doctor Alper Demirbaş
Follow me
Latest posts by Medically Reviewed by Professor Doctor Alper Demirbaş (see all)