Reading time is 3 mins


“Cancers that are diagnosed early are much easier to treat.” Turkey Medicals hospital member and Urologist Operator Doctor told us what you need to know about the causes, symptoms, diagnosis, risks and treatment of testicular cancer, which is common in men.

Who is at risk for testicular cancer?

The testicles are two small oval-shaped organs that hang in the lower part of the penis, in a skin sac called the scrotum. It is part of the male reproductive system. The testicles produce the sperm that will fertilize the woman’s egg from puberty onwards. The testes also produce the hormone testosterone, known as the male hormone.

What are the symptoms of testicular cancer?

The most common symptom of testicular cancer is a usually painless lump or swelling in part of the testicle. A cancerous lump can be as small as a pea or much larger. It is usually not painful, but some men may feel a slight pain in the damaged testicle or in the lower abdomen. You may feel that your scrotum (testicular bag) is heavy. The scrotum is a skin sac that surrounds the testicles.

How is testicular cancer diagnosed?

Cancers that are diagnosed early are much easier to treat. The easiest way to check the testicles is to do it after a warm shower or bath, with the scrotum relaxed. Then examine your testicles using the fingers of both hands and also your thumb. Feel each testicle gently. Any noticeable change in their size or soreness may mean that something has gone wrong. Normally, you should feel a soft duct in the posterior upper part of the testicle. The testicle itself should not contain a lump or swelling, it should be flat. If you notice a lump in your testicle, contact your doctor as soon as possible.

What are the types of testicular cancer?

There are two main groups as germ cell and non-Germ cell testicular tumors. Those with germ cells, on the other hand, are divided into 2 main groups: seminoma and non-seminoma (non-seminoma). They develop from germ cells in the testes. about 40-45 out of 100 testicular cancers (40-45%) are completely seminomas. Most of the rest are mixtures of different types of non-seminoma testicular cancer. All these testicular cancers are treated more or less the same way. Lymphoma is another type of cancer that is most common in the testicles of men over the age of 50.

What are the risks and causes of testicular cancer?

We don’t know for sure what causes this disease, but there are various factors that can increase the risk of developing the disease.

Failure to correct an undescended testicle by the age of 11 increases the risk of testicular cancer in a man. The fact that you have had a rare mumps complication called orchitis also increases your risk of developing cancer.

Carcinoma in situ (CIS) refers to the presence of abnormal cells in the testicle. This is not a type of cancer, but if left untreated, it can lead to the development of cancer. Men who have testicular cancer are also at a high risk of developing cancer in their other testicles. There is a small risk for men who have fertility (Reproductive) problems.

Having a father or brother who has testicular cancer increases the risk of developing cancer. Researchers believe that 1 in 5 testicular cancers (20%) is caused by inherited gene changes (faulty genes).

How is testicular tumor treated?

In all testicular tumors, the first step of treatment is to remove the testicle with an open operation. (Radical Orchiectomy Surgery) After this stage, the entire body will be scanned with blood tests (testicular tumor markers) and tomography. If there is a residual or spreading symptom of the disease, secondary treatment is started. These treatments can also be RPLND (an operation in which lymph nodes are removed), chemotherapy, or radiotherapy. Diagnosis and treatment of all testicular tumors requires a treatment approach that is carried out dec a combination of many departments. Therefore, it will be more convenient for you to contact the centers where the oncology and urology departments are located.


Follow me
President of Organ Transplant Center at MedicalPark Hospital Antalya

Turkey's world-renowned organ transplant specialist. Dr. Demirbaş has 104 international publications and 102 national publications.

Physician's Resume:

Born on August 7, 1963 in Çorum, Prof. Dr. Alper Demirbaş has been continuing his work as the President of MedicalPark Antalya Hospital Organ Transplantation Center since 2008.

Prof. who performed the first tissue incompatible kidney transplant in Turkey, the first blood type incompatible kidney transplant, the first kidney-pancreas transplant program and the first cadaveric donor and live donor liver transplant in Antalya. Dr. As of August 2016, Alper Demirbaş has performed 4900 kidney transplants, 500 liver transplants and 95 pancreas transplants.

In addition to being the chairman of 6 national congresses, he has also been an invited speaker at 12 international and 65 national scientific congresses. Dr. Alper Demirbaş was married and the father of 1 girl and 1 boy.


Eczacibasi Medical Award of 2002, Akdeniz University Service Award of 2005, Izder Medical Man of the Year Award of 2006, BÖHAK Medical Man of the Year Award of 2007, Sabah Mediterranean Newspaper Scientist of the Year Award of 2007, ANTIKAD Scientist of the Year Award of 2009, Social Ethics Association Award of 2010, Işık University Medical Man of the Year Award of 2015, VTV Antalya's Brand Value Award of 2015.


Doctor of Medicine Degree Hacettepe University Faculty of Medicine Ankara, General Surgeon Ministry of Health Turkey EKFMG (0-477-343-8), University of Miami School of Medicine Member of Multiple Organ Transplant, ASTS Multiorgan Transplant Scholarship. Lecturer at Kyoto University. Lecturer at University of Essen, Research assistant at the University of Cambridge .

Professional Members:

American Society of Transplant Surgeons, American Transplantation Society Nominated, Middle East and Southern Africa Council Transplantation Society 2007, International Liver Transplantation Association, Turkish Transplantation Association, Turkish Society of Surgery, Turkish Hepatobiliary Surgery Association.


Our website contents consist of articles approved by our Web and Medical Editorial Board with the contributions of our physicians. Our contents are prepared only for informational purposes for public benefit. Be sure to consult your doctor for diagnosis and treatment.
Medically Reviewed by Professor Doctor Alper Demirbaş
Follow me